Mongolia has a long prehistory and a most remarkable history. The prehistory started Huns, a people who lived In Central Asia from 3rd to the 1st century BC. The United Mongolian Great Empire was declared by Chinggis Khan in the early 13th century and his successors controlled a vast empire that included of China, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. The Mongolian Great Empire eventually collapsed and split up, and from 1691 northern Mongolia was colonized By Qing/Manchu/ China. In 1911 after Qing rule collapsed, the Bogd Gegeen (Javzandamba) Mongolia’s religious leader was proclaimed Bogd Khan which was head of state. He declared Mongolia’s independence, but only autonomy under China’s suzerainty was achieved. From 1919, nationalist revolutionaries, with Soviet assistance, drove out Chinese troops attempting to reoccupy Mongolia, and in 1921 they expelled the invading White Russian cavalry. July 11, 1921, then became celebrated as the anniversary of the revolution. The Mongolian People’s Republic was proclaimed in November 1924, and the Mongolian capital, centered on the main monastery of the Bogd Gegeen, was renamed Ulaanbaatar (“Red Hero”).Mongolia was a one-party state closely tied to the Soviet Union from 1921 until end of the 1980. During that time Mongolia received technical, economic, and military assistance from The Soviet Union and generally followed Soviet guidance in political and economic matters in the building of a socialist society. Beginning of 1990, monopoly of political power was ended by the communists in favor of free multiparty elections, coalition government, and new constitution, greater cultural and religious freedom with more emphasis on Mongol national traditions, a neutral position in international relations, and a transition to a market economy.
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